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烤漆房:前处理生产线工艺设计必注意

文章发布: 发表时间: 2017-03-23 10:41:23

树立涂装前处理出产线,先要完结技术规划,然后才干进行非标设备的规划、制造和安装。因而烤漆房的技术规划是树立出产线的根底,准确、合理的道路对出产操作及产品质量将会发生杰出的影响。技术规划的内容首要包含:处理办法,处理时刻,技术流程等。
To set up the production line before painting, we must finish the technical plan, and then we can do the planning, manufacture and installation of non-standard equipment. Therefore, the technical planning is to establish the foundation of the production line, accurate and reasonable road production operations and product quality will have a significant impact. The main contents of the technical planning include: processing methods, processing time, technical processes, etc..
1处理方法
1 treatment methods
工件处理方法,是指工件以何种方法与槽液接触抵达化学预处理之目的,包含全浸泡式、全喷淋式、喷淋浸泡组合式、刷涂式等。它首要取决于工件的几许尺度及形状、场所面积、出资规模、出产量等要素的影响。例如几许尺度杂乱的工件,不合适于喷淋方法;油箱、油桶类工件在液体中不易沉入,因而不合适于浸泡方法。
The method of workpiece processing refers to the purpose of the workpiece in contact with the liquid bath to reach the purpose of chemical pretreatment, including full immersion, full spray, spray immersion combination, brush type, etc.. It mainly depends on the size and shape of the workpiece, the size of the site, the size of the investment, production and other factors. For example, a number of scales of the workpiece is not suitable for spraying method; oil tank, oil drum type workpiece in the liquid is not easy to sink, and therefore not suitable for immersion method.
1.1全浸泡方法
1.1 full immersion method
将工件彻底浸泡在槽液中,待处理一段时刻后取出,完结除油或除锈磷化等方针的一种常见处理方法,工件的几许形状繁简各异,只需液体能够抵达的地方,都能完结处理目标,这是浸泡方法的共同长处,是喷淋、刷涂所不能比较的。其不足之处,是没有机械冲刷的辅佐运用,因而处理速度相对较慢,处理时刻较长,特别是象接连悬挂运送工件时,除工件在槽内运转时刻外,还有工件上下坡时刻,因而使设备增加,场所面积和出资增大。仅对磷化而言,现在国外比较趋向于选用全浸泡方法,据称全浸泡磷化易构成含铁量较高的颗粒状结晶磷化膜,与阴极电泳具有好的配套性。
The workpiece completely immersed in the bath, to be processed after a period of time out, over a common processing method for removing oil or rust phosphating policies, many different workpiece shape character, only liquid can reach the place that can end treatment goals, this is the common advantage of soaking method, comparison spray and brush can. Its shortcomings, is no use of assisted mechanical erosion, and slow processing speed, processing time is longer, especially as successive suspension transport parts, in addition to running the workpiece in the groove, and constantly downhill the workpiece, so that the equipment increase, and increase investment area. Only for phosphating, now abroad tend to choose the full immersion method, it is said that the full immersion phosphating is easy to form a high iron content of granular crystalline phosphating film, and cathodic electrophoresis has a good supporting.
   1.2全喷淋方法
1.2 full spray method
用泵将液体加压,并以0.1~0.2Mpa的压力使液体构成雾状,喷发在工件上抵达处理作用。因为喷淋时有机械冲刷和液体更新运用,因而处理速度加速、时刻缩短。出产线长度缩短,相应节首了场所、设备、不足之处是,几许形状较杂乱的工件,像内腔、角落处等液体不易抵达,处理作用欠好,因而只合适于处理几许形状简略的工件。喷淋方法也不太合适于酸洗除锈,它会带来设备腐蚀、工序间生锈等一系列问题,因而在挑选喷淋酸洗时有必要非常稳重。据报道,全喷淋磷化易构成结晶枝状粗大、含铁量较低的磷化膜,国外不发起作为阴极电泳漆前打底的前处理。全喷淋方法首要运用于家用电器、零部件类的粉末涂装、静电涂漆、阳极电泳等。
The liquid is pressurized by the pump, and the liquid is formed by the pressure of 0.1 ~ 0.2Mpa, and the effect of the explosion is reached on the workpiece. Because of the mechanical spray and liquid update, so the processing speed is accelerated and the time is shortened. The production line length, the corresponding section of the first place, equipment, drawback is that many shape is messy, like inner corner of workpiece, etc. the liquid is not easy to reach, treatment effect is not good, and only suitable for the treatment of many simple shape workpiece. The spray method is not quite suitable for pickling, it will bring a series of problems of equipment corrosion, rust and other processes, and in the selection of spray pickling is necessary very stable. It is reported that the full spray phosphating is easy to form a crystalline dendrite thick, containing a lower amount of phosphate film, foreign countries do not start as a cathode electrophoresis paint before the pretreatment. The spray method is mainly used in powder coating, electrostatic painting, anode electrophoresis and so on.
1.3喷淋-浸泡联系式
1.3 spray soak connection
喷淋-浸泡联系式,通常是在某道工序时,工件先是喷淋,然后入槽浸泡,出槽后再喷淋,所有的喷淋、浸泡均是同一槽液。这种联系方法即保留了喷淋的高效率,进步处理速度,又具有浸泡进程,使工件所有部位均可得到有用处理。因而喷淋-浸泡联系式前处理即能在较短时刻内完结处理工序,设备占用场所也相对较少,一起又可取得满足的处理作用。现在在国内外,关于前处理请求较高的汽车行业,通常都趋向于采纳喷淋-浸泡联系方法。
Spray - Immersion contact, usually in a certain process, the workpiece is first spray, and then into the tank to soak, after the tank and then spray, all the spray, soaking are the same trough. This method is to retain the high efficiency of the spray, improve the processing speed, but also has a soaking process, so that all parts of the workpiece can be useful. Therefore, the spray soaking pretreatment can finish the processing procedure in a relatively short time, and the equipment occupying place is relatively small. Now at home and abroad, on the request of the higher processing of the automotive industry, tend to adopt the spray - soak contact method.
1.4刷涂方法
1.4 brush coating method
直接将处理液通过手艺刷涂到工件外表,来抵达化学处理的目的,这种方法通常不易取得极好的处理作用,在工厂运用较少。关于某些大型、形状较简略的工件,能够思考用这种方法。
The treatment solution is directly applied to the surface of the workpiece through the technical brush to achieve the purpose of chemical treatment, which is not easy to obtain an excellent treatment effect, and is used less in the factory. With regard to some of the larger, simpler shape of the workpiece, can think of this method.
   2处理温度
2 treatment temperature
从节省能源、改进劳作环境、降低出产成本、化学反应速度、处理时刻和出产速度请求动身,在出产运用中遍及选用的是低温或中温前处理技术。
From saving energy, improving the working environment, reducing production costs, chemical reaction speed, processing time and production speed request, in the production of widely used in the selection of low temperature or medium temperature pretreatment technology.
工件除有液态油污外,还有少数固态油脂,在低温下,固态油脂很难去掉,因而脱脂温度不管是浸泡仍是喷淋均应挑选中温规模。假如只要液态油脂,选用低温脱脂彻底能够抵达请求。
In addition to the work of liquid oil, there are a small number of solid oil, at low temperatures, it is difficult to get rid of solid oil, and therefore degreasing temperature, whether it is soaking or spray should be selected in the temperature scale. As long as the liquid oil, the use of low temperature degreasing can reach the request.
对通常锈蚀及氧化皮工件,应挑选中温酸洗,方可确保在10min内彻底除去锈蚀物及氧化皮。除非有满足的理由,通常不挑选低温或不加温酸洗除锈,低温酸洗仅限于如:工件锈蚀很少、无氧化皮;除锈时刻不受约束;答应选用盐酸酸洗等状况。
On the usual corrosion and oxidation of the workpiece, should be selected temperature pickling, to ensure that the 10min completely remove the rust and oxidation. Unless there is a reason to meet, usually choose low temperature or low temperature heating of pickling, pickling only rarely, such as: nonscale workpiece corrosion; rust free time; using hydrochloric acid pickling of promise.
外表调整工序,通常不需加温,通常就是常温处理。
A process of adjustment, usually without heating, usually at room temperature.
低温或中温磷化,磷化速度都没有显着的不一样,都可在较短的时刻内快速构成磷化膜。磷化后的工件,假如请求有较长的工序间存放时刻,变应当挑选中温磷化,才会有较好的防锈作用。
Low temperature or medium temperature phosphating, phosphating speed are not significantly different, can be formed in a short time fast phosphating film. Phosphating of the workpiece, if there is a request for a longer period of storage time, the change should be selected in the temperature phosphating, will have a good anti rust effect.
全部前处理进程,都可选用常温不加温洗方法,假如最终一道水洗是热水烫干,其水温应在80℃以上。
All the pre-treatment process, can be used at room temperature without heating method, if the end of a hot water washing is dry, the water temperature should be above 80 degrees celsius.
3处理时刻
3 processing time
处理方法、处理温度一旦选定,处理时刻应依据工件的油污、锈蚀程度来定。通常可参考前处理药剂运用说明书的处理时刻请求。
Processing method, processing temperature once selected, processing time should be based on the work of the oil, rust degree. Usually refer to the pretreatment of the use of the instructions of the processing time request.
   4技术流程
4 technical process
依据工件油污、锈蚀程度以及底漆请求,分为不一样的技术流程。
According to the work piece oil pollution, the rust degree as well as the primer request, divides into the different technical flow.
4.1彻底无锈工件
4.1 completely no rust workpiece
预脱脂--脱脂--水清洁--表调--磷化--水清洁--烘干(电泳底漆时可不干燥,直接进入电泳槽)。这是规范的四工位流程,运用面广,合适于各类冷轧板及机加工的无锈工件前处理,还可将表调剂加到脱脂槽内,减少一道表调工序。
Pre degreasing, degreasing, water cleaning - table - phosphating - water cleaning - drying (electrophoresis primer can not dry, directly into the electrophoresis tank). This is the standard four station process, the use of a wide range, suitable for all types of cold rolled sheet and the machining of the workpiece before processing, but also can be used to adjust the table into the degreasing tank, reducing a table adjustment process.
4.2通常油污、锈蚀、氧化皮混合工件
4.2 oil, rust, oxide skin mixed workpiece
脱脂除锈“二合一”--水清洁--中和--表调--磷化--水清洁--烘干(或直接电泳)。这套技术是国内运用最为广泛的流程,合适各类工件(重油污除外)的前处理;假如选用中温磷化,还可省掉表调工序,简略的板型工件,也可省掉中和工序,变成规范带锈件的四工位技术。
Degreasing and derusting "two in one" - water cleaning - neutralization - table - phosphating - water cleaning - drying (or direct electrophoresis). This technology is the most widely used process, suitable all kinds of workpieces (except the heavy oil) before treatment; if the medium temperature phosphating, also can save the table adjustment process, the slab workpiece briefly, also can be saved and become standard procedure, four station technology rusted parts.
4.3重油污、锈蚀、氧化皮类工件
4.3 heavy oil, rust, oxide skin parts
预脱脂--水清洁--脱脂除锈“二合一”--水清洁--中和--表调--磷化--水清洁--烘干(或直接进入电泳槽)。关于重油污的工件,首先应进行预脱脂,除去大多数的油脂,以确保鄙人一步脱脂除锈“二合一”处理后,得到彻底洁净的金属外表。
Pre degreasing, water cleaning, degreasing, derusting, "two in one" - water cleaning - neutralization - Surface - phosphating - water cleaning - drying (or directly into the electrophoresis tank). The workpiece on heavy oil, first of all should be pre degreasing, remove most of the fat, to ensure that the next step of degreasing derusting combo treatment, metal appearance thoroughly clean.
  5几点注意事项
5 points for attention
在技术规划中有些小地方应当非常注意,即便有些是与设备规划有关的,假如思考不周,将会对出产线的运转及工人操作发生许多晦气的影响,如工序距离时刻,溢流水洗,磷化除渣,工件的技术孔,槽体及加热管资料等。
In the technical planning of some small places should pay much attention to, even if some are planning and equipment related, if not on week effect will occur many adverse to the production line running and operation of the work, such as the process from the moment, overflow water washing, phosphating slag removal technology, hole workpiece, tank and heating pipe materials etc..
5.1工序距离时刻
5.1 working distance
各个工序间的距离时刻假如太长,会构成工件在运转进程中二次生锈,特别是有酸洗技术时,酸洗后工件很容易在空气中氧化生锈泛绿,最好设有工序间水膜维护,可减少生锈。生锈泛黄泛绿的工件,严重影响磷化作用,构成工件挂灰、泛黄,不能构成完整的磷化膜,所以应尽量缩短工序间的距离时刻。工序间的距离时刻若太短,工件存水处的水,不能彻底有用的沥干,发生串槽景象,特别在喷淋方法时,会发生彼此喷发飞溅串槽,使槽液成分不易控制,乃至槽液遭到损坏。因而在思考工序距离时,应依据工件几许尺度、形状挑选一个恰当的工序距离时刻。
If the distance between every process time is too long, will constitute the two workpiece rust in the operation process, especially after pickling pickling technology, workpiece is easily oxidized in the air with the best process of green rust, water film maintenance, can reduce rust. The rusty yellow green, seriously affecting the phosphating effect, a workpiece hanging ash and yellowing, phosphating film cannot form a complete, so should try to shorten the distance between the time step. If the distance is too short time between processes, the workpiece water storage of the water, can not be completely useful drain, occurrence of channeling scene, especially in the spraying method, will happen to each other on the eruption of splash trough, bath composition is not easy to control, and the bath was damaged. Therefore, in the process of thinking about the distance, should be based on the size and shape of the workpiece to select an appropriate process distance.
5.2溢流水清洁
5.2 overflow cleaning
发起溢流水洗,以确保工件充沛清洁洁净,减少串槽景象。溢流时应当从底部进水,对角线上部开溢流孔溢流。
The overflow water is washed to ensure that the workpiece is clean and clean, and to reduce the number of grooves. Overflow should be from the bottom of the water, the upper part of the overflow hole overflow.
5.3工件技术孔
5.3 workpiece hole
关于某些管形件或易构成死角存水的工件,有必要挑选适当的方位钻好技术孔,确保水能在较短的时刻内充沛流尽。否则会构成串槽或许要在空中长时刻沥干,发生二次生锈,影响磷化作用。
Work on some tubular or easy to form the water in the corner, it is necessary to select the appropriate range of drill hole technology, ensure that the water in a relatively short time in full flow. Otherwise, it will constitute a series of slots may be in the air for a long time to drain, the occurrence of two rust, affecting phosphating.
5.4磷化除渣
5.4 phosphating slag removal
关于任何一种磷化液都会或多或少发生沉渣(轻铁系五颜六色磷化沉渣很少),应在技术予规划时注明设有磷化除渣设备,特别是喷淋磷化时,除渣设备必不可少,典型的除渣装置有:斜板沉积器、高位沉积塔、离心除渣器、纸布袋滤渣等都可供挑选。
About any kind of phosphating solution will occur more or less sediment (light iron phosphating dregs, rarely riotous with colour) should be marked with the phosphating slag removal equipment in technology for planning, especially when spraying phosphating slag, essential equipment, typical slag removing device: inclined plate precipitator, high tower, centrifugal slag deposition device, paper bag filter slag to choose from.
5.5槽体及加热管资料
5.5 tank and heating pipe data
尽管关于槽体加热管资料的挑选不是技术规划的内容,假如在技术规划时不予提示,可能会构成设备规划人员的忽略,而影响全部出产线的运转。关于硫酸、盐酸酸洗时,其槽体资料只能选用玻璃钢、花岗岩、塑料,加热管只能选用铅锑合金管、陶瓷管,而不能选用不锈钢资料。假如是选用磷酸酸洗,其槽体及加热管资料均可选用不锈钢资料,当然玻璃钢、塑料、花岗岩均可。
Although the selection of the information about the heating tube is not the content of the technical planning, if the technical planning is not prompted, may constitute the neglect of the equipment planning staff, and affect the operation of the whole production line. As for sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid pickling, the material of the trough can only be made of glass fiber reinforced plastic, granite and plastic, and the heating tube can only be made of lead antimony alloy tube and ceramic tube, and stainless steel material can not be selected. If it is the use of phosphoric acid pickling, the tank and heating pipe materials can be used stainless steel materials, of course, glass fiber reinforced plastic, plastic, granite can be.

 

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